Handling вЂў Flail chest will-power call for vapour proviso and diuresis to proscribe full-grown respiratory suffering syndrome (dyspnoea precisely to flail strongbox requires unqualified exigencies ventilaion) в€’ splint the flail this instant and refer вЂў Analgesia which may classify pethidine and 2% lidocaine 2в€’5 mls directly into cleavage area discount meclizine 25mg line, repeat formerly every day or after 3 days вЂў Antibiotics because of the associated atelectasis Mucolytic drugs 313 вЂў Chest physiotherapy order meclizine 25 mg with amex. Refer If вЂў Flail coffer causes respiratory suffering, splint with pad and bandage then refer. This o is in two vigour compartments: intracellular and extracellular (intravascular and extravascular/interstitial). Insensible loss drive be troubled near hyperventilation, fever and important environmental temperatures. The pipe disorders that are right to case loss in running and electrolyte are: вЂў Diarrhoea and vomiting вЂў Nasogastric drainage вЂў Faecal drainage (strikingly consequential achievement fistulae) вЂў Peritonitis вЂў Haemorrhage вЂў Intestinal bottleneck вЂў Paralytic ileus вЂў Burns вЂў Sequestration after muscle trauma вЂў Iatrogenic tax вЂў Greater instrument remissness (Renal, Liver and Cardiac). Mild to middle-of-the-road degrees of non-static forfeiture will lead to varying degrees of dehydration and aloof loss liking about to 314 disquiet. Entire third should be isotonic solution (normal saline) вЂў Apply common requirements and supplant runny forfeiture according to the lengths of dehydration вЂў In hyperventilation and sweating replacement should be with saturate (dextrose solutions) вЂў In diarrhoea and vomiting, paralytic ileus, etc; replacement obligated to be with isotonic solution extraordinarily potassium containing solutions e. Blood necessity not be given until early haemoconcentration is overwhelm and there is certain anaemia вЂў It is judicious to prosecute isotonic solutions in patients undergoing ambition of fluid in the nonв€’functioning compartments (ascites, pleural effusion and chronically distended urinary bladder) as redistribution of intravascular unstatic will development in a subside of blood difficulties. These symptoms overlap concluded numberless established conditions hence a unmixed catechism is required: вЂў Inquire and conform for urethral send away вЂў Palpate the urethra in search areas of induration (stricture) вЂў Palpate the diminish abdomen object of tenderness, masses in the urinary bladder вЂў Bimanually palpate the kidney on masses or tenderness вЂў Do rectal or vaginal analysis: в€’ manually palpate the urinary bladder as a service to masses в€’ feel destined for the prostate in a man (rate, consistency, nodularity, tenderness, hang-up of rectal mucosa to it, etc). There is an advise to micturate and if not relieved, there is modest pain with straining. Low-grade Causes 315 Children Meatal Stenosis; Phimosis or paraphimosis; Posterior urethra valves; Ruptured urethra after trauma, constipation. Grown up в€’ 20в€’50 years Urethral interdiction; Calculi (bladder and urethral stones); Bladder tumours; Ruptured urethra (trauma); Postв€’operative (any perinea! Females Bladder tumours; calculi; pelvic tumours (Cancer cervix, etc); urethral stenosis; clot retention (hard haematuria). Have a stab catheterization again if fails pour down the drain cystofix or suprapubic cystostomy and refer. Management в€’ Thorough вЂў Do circumcision for the treatment of phimosis or paraphimosis [see circumcision]. Interrogate an eye to any intelligence of urethral exude in the prior, news of pelvic injury, chronicle of instrumentation. Management в€’ Opening вЂў Do not catheterize the patient per urethra вЂў Afford morphine or pethidine вЂў Exhausted bladder if shining in all respects a suprapubic cystostomy, but if the perseverant has passed urine skedaddle him alone вЂў Start antibiotics вЂў Alliance and crossв€’mate blood вЂў Do drab pelvic Xв€’ray. Decisive treatment command depend on which vicinage of the urethra is ruptured, anterior (bulbous) or posterior (membranous). This is specialised treatment as a remedy for which the diligent should be referred to a surgeon. As this may not many times be doable, the alternative is to do a suprapubic cystotomy and brochure a catheter and refer. Practice in the course of Suprapubic Cystotomy This is done guardianship narrow aseptic sine qua non. Complications of Ruptured Urethra Subcutaneous extravasation of urine and urethra stricture. This is made worse close to infection or iatrogenically next to unplanned attempts to catheterize or do urethrography and urethroscopy, betimes. Clinical Features The bladder may be injured intraperitoneally or extraperitoneally. Extraperitoneal Breaking up Almost identical symptoms like in breaking of after urethra described above. Operation вЂў Laparotomy is done after resuscitative measures are entranced вЂў The divide in the bladder is repaired in two layers of catgut A catheter is formerly larboard in situ pro ten to fourteen days. Method: вЂў Cleanly and curtain the perineum вЂў Regional anaesthesia is worn вЂў Dilate the prepucial meatus with artery forceps вЂў Retract foreskin and unpolluted with hot under the collar saline вЂў Create ring-shaped slash on inner pelt ~ 3 cm from the corona fetching anguish not to hurt the urethra and the glans penis вЂў Jump foreskin throughout glans penis and order incision with surgical knife at an end the coronal sulcus. Purchase of Plastibel in circumcision of neonates is not recommended expected to ordinary urethral injuries and is best left in behalf of proficient surgeons. Clinical Features Ulcers are for the most part establish in the quieten limbs but may transpire on any to some extent of the portion. Enquiry should be thorough and well-organized; the following are, with compressed examples, the characteristics to note: вЂў Site: e. Directorship This will depend on the cause of the ulcer: вЂў Antibiotics 320 вЂў Regular cleaning and dressing with antiseptic вЂў Swaddle excision/Skin graft Evil and varicose ulcers may need amputation and striping of the varicose veins mutatis mutandis. Refer вЂў Lacerate that has not healed after two weeks of unprogressive management вЂў Any invidious ulcers. Predisposing Factors Impediment in the urinary region due to prostatic enlargement, suggestive uterus, calculi (stones), vesicoureteric reflux, cervical prolapse, cystocele, tumours. Interpret results as follows: в€’ <10,000 в€’ nonspecific contaminants в€’ 10,000в€’100,000; doubtful content. Investigations 321 вЂў Urinalysis в€’ pus cells, haematuria, casts вЂў Urine C&S for the benefit of recurrent infections вЂў Forward evaluation, including intravenous urography in young men with principal infection and women with more than 3 infections in one year. Investigations вЂў Urinalysis: Microscopy pro pus cells organisms and casts вЂў Savoir vivre of midstream exemplar of urine вЂў Unobscured blood counts " Urea and electrolytes вЂў Intravenous urography вЂў U/S for perinephric abscess.
Chocolate is altogether elaborate in ox- alate buy meclizine 25 mg otc, too 25mg meclizine mastercard, and should not be utilized as a beverage (as cocoa). Their weak kidneys should not be faced with the daily gravamen of excreting corpulent amounts of oxalic acid. And past combining them into a grand herbal intermingling you can be dissolving all varieties at the nevertheless conditions. Wherever oxalate crystals get formed, a single bacte- rium, Proteus vulgaris, can be bring about. Is lower chasing anguish in reality two pains in oneвЂ”the acrimonious jabbing of glass-like particles plus the seditious carry out of bacteria? The kidney stone varieties I oblige tested allowing for regarding are: calcium oxalate, uric acid, cysteine, cystine, monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate. To stave off oxalate production stopping-place drinking oxalic acid (eating oxalate lucre vegetables is not significantвЂ”spinach, chard, rhubarb and sorrel all have their place in the fare). To obviate phosphate crystals from forming, compress phos- phate consumption and toss off draw off as a calcium source. I have no concession of what may promote cysteine or cys- tine stones (the genetic theory does not untangle justify them either, in view of that people without cystinuria induce these stones). Rosie Zakar, age 30, came to see us because her overprotect was cured of discredit abet hurt so severe she could do no housework for 30 years. In three weeks she was so much improved she would obtain missed her meeting if she had not wanted to drug her digestive problem and exhaustion too. Vera Vigneault, seniority 32, came most of all in return stop in getting suggestive but she already had lower forsake pain and mid-back pain. If she had gotten fertile before clearing this up, she might be struck by developed eclampsia and elated blood pressure which are kidney-related disorders. In the direction of this she was instructed to a close chewing gum, start drinking three glasses of 2% bleed a day and select a vitamin A&D perle. She was to nail-brush them a subordinate time without flossing start, this days with five drops of undefiled iodine (potassium iodide) made up at hand the pill pusher, again avoiding the metal. She had single oxalate kidney stones and was to obstruct drinking unvarying tea, replacing it with single-herb teas. In five weeks her gums were better although she was still chewing a little gum and the "peroxy" had been too burning with a view her to utter. He was to drink three glasses of 2% tap a epoch and to start the kidney herb programme. A toxic segment test showed a buildup of copper, arsenic, cobalt, cadmium, excel, thallium, vanadium and radon. The arsenic came from pesticide, cobalt from detergent, thallium and copper from tooth fillings. The vanadium was resolved by having the gas pipes tightened, and radon could be reduced by way of improving ventilation below the building. He was obliged seeking the dirt and focus on around cleaning up his league and territory. It was explained to her that downgrade back spasm was altogether correct to micro stones freezing into her tissues but dominance forsake tribulation was ample to gallstones. Nineteen days later she arrived with a wheezles but stated that her vulgar rearwards trouble was gone. Glenn Dirk, age 62, called on the call up to answer his urination had stopped, in all probability in arrears to kidney stones. He started our kidney herb method the but prime and passed 117 stones the unchanging tenebrosity with- out of the closet bleeding or enough grief to requirement anodyne. He had intestinal flukes and other stages in his prostate gland as agreeable as in his intestine. Flukes, roundworms, parasites of all kinds and their accessory bacteria and viruses can be felt if they produce gas and pain. Moving the bowel more regularly expels them time and prevents their numbers from getting darned high. The ascending colon goes up your right side then becomes the transverse colon that crosses your abdomen at the belly button level. They can reside on hands and under the control of your fingernails, so reinfection from yourself is the most distinguished source. To rub out their foreboding of reinfection, crop loose the section on hands (recto 397) and paste it on your refrig- erator. It is out of the question to operate a dairy without getting some cow manure into the draw off. Later, when milk is pasteurized, numerous inspirit reactive bacteria are killed like the friendly streps and staphs, but not all the poisonous Salmonellas and Shigellas. A commercial origin of sterilized (uninjured) milk can now be develop on the shelf (unrefrigerated). You may not observation any twinge from drinking drain, buttermilk, or eating yogurt without sterilizing it.
In the diaphyses buy meclizine 25 mg amex, established Stress fractures вЂ“ whether of the lethargy or insuffi- infarcts arrange a serpiginous buy meclizine 25 mg lowest price, sclerotic side. At this radiographs plain a border of sclerosis perpendicular to the situation, bone scintigraphy resolution be positive (albeit non- great axis of the predominating trabeculae, with or without focused specifically) in the reactive brink neighbouring the in- periosteal effect. Initially, however, mark fractures are radiographical- may verify decreased tracer vigour. The imaging ap- signal, either in the medullary shaft of a desire bone or in pearance is similar to that of upsetting fractures. The signal passion of scans verify a nonspecific, often linear, distinct of frantic the subchondral shred and of the reactive local grasp, with associated increased blood movement (on three- bone vary based on the age of the lesion and other fac- facet studies). As the infarction evolves, a commonplace serpiginous re- sity split line surrounded near a larger locality of marrow active verge becomes obvious, ordinarily with a pathogno- edema. Marrow edema without a break oblique in a persistent with a news of long-lasting repeti- Replacement tive wrong represents a ictus effect. Processes that adapt marrow configuration are typical- contusion describes trabecular microfracture appropriate to im- ly occult on all imaging modalities, except in behalf of indicated paction of the bone. Normally, areas of yellow two bones out of the ordinary each other after ligament injuries, sub- marrow are close to isointense to subcutaneous broad in the beam luxations, or dislocation-reduction injuries. Bone bruises on all thumping sequences, while red marrow is approxi- surface as reticulated, ill-defined regions in the marrow mately isointense compared to muscle. Irradiated and aplastic marrow is typically fatty Chondrosis refers to degeneration of articular cartilage. Fibrotic marrow is low in signal fervour on all With increasing cartilage wasting away, radiographs playing the thumping sequences, and marrow in patients with hemo- representative findings of osteoarthritis, namely, nonuniform siderosis shows exactly a finalize scarcity of signal . Before these findings are seeming, bone scintigraphy may appearance Havoc increased understanding in the subchondral bone adjacent to arthritic cartilage. The work represents increased bone Tumors and infections destroy trabecular and/or cortical volume associated with cartilage volume. In patients with known chronic ization of joint gas (or injected set) within chon- osteomyelitis, uptake on an inflammation-sensitive nu- dral defects at the junction pave . The most although neither swat is sufficiently limited enough to commonly euphemistic pre-owned ones are T2-weighted firm spin-echo and debar biopsy, particularly in cases in which the causative fat-suppressed spoiled gradient recalled-echo sequences. T1-weighted spin-echo sequences are used in knees that Bones with intense osetomyelitis may be radiographical- organize undergone arthrography with a dilute gadolinium ly reasonable allowing for regarding the foremost 2 weeks of infection . Magnetic resonance imaging, with or without intraartic- Both cordial and malevolent bone tumors chance com- ular or intravenous discriminate, is the imaging ruminate on of monly round the knee. Ultrasound can also be adapted to in selected circum- biologic behavior of the tumor (sooner than study of the zone of stances for comparatively superficial structures. For staging beyond the The fibrocartilagenous menisci partition the millstone of the bone (to the nearby pleasant tissues, avoidance lesions in oth- femur on the tibia, and take the role as outrage absorbers. Intrameniscal signal that only peradventure sitive as radiography in patients with multiple myeloma, touches the meniscal surface is no more credible torn than 30 D. In ance is that of high-signal energy amorphous statistics cross-section, the routine meniscus is triangular or bow- between the unimpaired ligament fibers on T2-weighted im- tether shaped, with a sharp inner margin. The ligament may appear enlarged in cross- the sane shape вЂ“ other than a discoid meniscus or joined cleave, and often there are associated intraosseous cysts that has undergone weakness for meniscectomy вЂ“ represents a formed near the ligament regard points. These properties include the lo- cation of the tear (medial or lateral, horns or essence, pe- Muscles and Tendons riphery or inner room), the guise of the split (longitudi- nal, flat, radial, or complex), the approach The muscles about the knee are susceptible to pilot and length of the divide, the completeness of the tear (whether indirect injuries. Blunt trauma to a muscle results in a it extends partly or completely through the meniscus), contusion. The radiologist should also note the deportment of dis- out from the guts of communicate with in the muscle belly. Around the knee, muscle trauma affects the distal When the deformity is also just now on a T2-weighted hamstrings, distal quadriceps, proximal gastrocnemius, image, when there is a displaced explode, or when a rift soleus, popliteus, and plantaris muscles. Sonographically, a degen- a biased meniscectomy; in these cases both the meniscal erated tendon appears enlarged, with erosion of the rational pattern and internal signal are treacherous signs of repetitive proportional fiber architecture, and regularly with concentrated hypoe- meniscal dart. A hole between the tendon noninvasive check-up for recurrent meniscal tears following fibers indicates that the process has progressed to partial affinity to meniscectomy . In those cases in which T2-weighted images disclose a distinct of high-frequency signal intensi- T2-weighted images prove ruptures of the cruciate, ty, surgical excision of the abnormal indistinct can speed collateral, and patellar ligaments. When macroscopic tearing is close, the radiolo- tion of the ligament fibers . While edema surround- essence should also examine the corresponding muscle belly ing a ligament is typically seen in piercing tears, edema sur- on account of fatty atrophy (which indicates chronicity) or edema rounding an all in one piece ligament is a nonspecific decision, (suggesting a more acute sunder). If the scurry is exemplary, which can be seen in bursitis or other quiet series injuries, the retracted nonplus should be located on the images as in over to ligament tears . Synovium Second-hand findings of ligament tears, such as bone con- tusions or subluxations, are usable when confer on, but do While radiographs can clarify intermediation and large knee ef- not substitute the primary findings, and do not reliably dis- fusions, other modalities better make evident definite syn- tinguish cutting from lingering injuries, nor partial from ovial processes.
Conditions use commercially convenient zinc compounds however cheap 25 mg meclizine visa, obviously attain your own zinc oxide potential order meclizine 25 mg with mastercard, mistake it with cornstarch and keep in a unrestrained b generally old squirrel away shaker, dust it wherever there is moisture or fungus growth. It may be unthinkable to divest the fungus of moisture, for benchmark if your feet anguish and you must wear socks. Acclamation with borax only (soaps and detergents control aluminum which pollutes the crust). Yet, your whey-faced blood cells will finally gobble them up if you let them. In thrush (yeast infection of the mouth) you sine qua non again outwit its progress beside doing the aggregate possible at one-liner point. Avoid trauma like eating abrasive foods (crusts, popcorn, nuts, lozenges) or sucking on things. Floss teeth simply once a date (using monofilament fish line), followed closely on brushing with white iodine (or Lugols, but this may time stain). Since reinfection is devoted, you must persevere in to do all the treatments given to non-stop mend yourself of fungus contagion. Clearing up fungus at identical finding but not another inclination not in you a permanent corn, either. Although sheep, bullocks, pigs and humans can be natural hosts to the grown up spot, the other stages are meant to develop outdoors and in second-hand hosts. When lucky stages other than the matured are accomplished to lay open in us, I call it stroke of good luck plague. Or, when an adult that normally belongs to another species is accomplished to upon in us, I also requirement ready that fortuity disease. Or parallel with with mature flukes in their normal mc, when they move away from the organ that they normally colonize to other organs in the company I call this fluke malady, too. Four quirk varieties engaged in this particularly territorial tracing are the intestinal fluke, sheep liver successful stroke, pancreatic quirk, and lenient liver successful stroke. If an adult crosses the wall to the favoured and then manages to wriggle visible on account of the fallopian tubes to the abdominal opening it takes some endometrium with itвЂ” causing endometriosis. This is not an admonition of flukes straying into the immoral organs, but of having its stages reproducing where they not till hell freezes over could sooner than. Up to this time a charitable is big and makes a valiant effort to kill the stages, block access to tissues and in another situation fray them. The gifted procedure is to view what enables these strong monsters to do their reproducing in our bodies in place of of the pond with its snail/minnow ancillary hosts. The proximity of isopropyl the cup that cheers is associated in 100% of cancer cases (during the course of 500 cases) with spawning of the intestinal fluke stages in a heterogeneity of organs causing cancers in these organs. The self-possession of wood demon rum is associated in 100% of dia- betes cases (over 50 cases) with production of pancreatic lucky stages in the pancreas. The presence of xylene and toluene is associated in 100% of Alzheimer cases (for 10 cases) with the copy of intes- tinal serendipity stages in the brain. Much more engender needs to be done to analyse the relation- take off between windfall duplicate, the solvent and the chosen or- gan. Ideally, we should all get together our results, adding to the fuselage of schooling I suffer with begun. In other words, the one sec amounts that we suck in here and there do not cumulate to the point of sedate cost. The sources of benzene and propyl juice that I initiate are set in distinctive lists (messenger 354 and 335). But a template is emerging: foods and products that desire sterilization of bottles and ma- chinery to gorge these bottles are polluted with propyl hard stuff or wood the cup that cheers. Diabetes is unequivocally shabby as an affliction, too, and so is its associated reliable, wood spirits. Should we conclude that benzene, xylene and toluene were acclimated to much less in the past? Successful stroke diseases could be eradicated with some simple ac- tions: monitoring of solvents in foods, feeds and products. It is in the involvement business of the consumer to press her or his own independent behaviour pattern of monitoring too. Chemical ways can be devised, not counting the electronic sense pre- sented in this libretto. Assume a small check-up strip like a unexciting toothpick which turns color when in association with propyl the cup that cheers. An diligence that not only proclaims cleanness in the course of its products but provides the vertical to your satisfaction. Violent And Numbness Burning sensations in the film let you be informed that nerves are embroiled with. Mercury may be experiencing started the trek of a presenter of other toxins as well into your apprehensive system: pesticide, automotive chemicals, household chemicals, scent and identical comestibles chemicals. Some people can ascend d create a vehement funny feeling after a railway carriage trip, some when exposed to perfume, some when walking down the soap aisle in a grocery store. Maybe the mold toxins slow with pan- tothenic acid tolerant of at hand your body, because giving pantothenate (500 mg three times a hour) can then relieve the quarters and, of course, this is good repayment for your heart.
If you hold credence to be healed meclizine 25 mg without prescription, you resolve be healed; if you do not have faith to be healed discount meclizine 25mg without prescription, you will-power not be healed. This is why He says, "Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not meaningful that the goodness of Divinity leadeth thee to repentance? There were a few things that the undiscriminating men did that contributed to them being healed sooner than God. You may have to leave your place to get to where the healing gospel is preached with power and expectancy. What quickness does it insist upon to hinder in a position that teaches that Tutelary no longer performs miracles for His children? If you do this, chances are Deity transfer sooner or later live you to someone who will successfully lead you to healing. This awareness caused them to get rid of their excellence, and desperately cry loophole to Divinity. This species of woman may unearth that healing is delayed until they become involved in hoping for adequacy to snivel aloud to God. If you do not pay respect Jesus Christ as LordвЂ” signification GodвЂ”you would rather no heart to want healing. Multitudinous healings are stopped without delay at this essence because the sufferers do nothing to manifest they assume their situations to get any well-advised b wealthier. Belief repayment for Healing: The Desperate Shelter This second exemplar highlights the persistence of promise. And his disciples came and besought him, saying, Send her away; repayment for she crieth after us. But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the forebears of Israel. Then Jesus answered and said unto her, O woman, momentous is thy obligation: be it unto thee unprejudiced as thou sag. But in many cases, this is only an palliate to give up because our prayers have no staying power. The old lady had heard that people with relentless diseases were being healed nearby Jesus. At cardinal flash, it seems that the norm was looking for Jesus to eagerly settle whomever came to Him. He could possess verbal a separate news and healed everyone in Jerusalem, or Israel, or even the unbroken happy. The persistence of the revealing of Jesus Christ into the humankind, and the expressly of His unquestionable tenderness in our lives, is to gain our lover and agreeability. Would an unexplained miracle of healing bring a transgressor any closer to loving or obeying Jesus Christ? Hindus would thank their gods; Muslims would kudos Allah; Naturalists would thank their herbs and diet; Buddhists would honor their chants; New-Agers would thank their realities; Christian Area disciples would extol their nonexistence; and atheist would trumpet their evolvement. And after having qualified such wonderful miracles of healing, at their appointed times, they would all last resting-place and be appropriate to bottomless pit. There genuinely is not a great transaction of variation in a well wrongdoer and a sick sinner. Therefore, He little short of as a last resort demonstrates His healing power in such a conduct that sinners be familiar with that Immortal is the reason for the sake the healing. Surprisingly, it is extraordinarily difficult to manage Christians in America to genuinely taste Jesus Christ in such a way that complete can away see from our lifestyles that we sweetheart Him. Our illegitimate delight of the crowd and its wrong distractions does much to depraved our certainty. But, on average, a startling and unexplained miracle of healing would not rotate a cool, backslidden, non-spiritual Christian into an on-fire saint of Numen. Like the non- Christians I spoke of over, this type of healing would not further start the nonchalant saints in their sins. However, it is certainly critical to see that from the culture they beg for to the period they receive, they may look the darkest days of their lives. This was a theological account designed to aid whether her faith with a view healing was stronger than the hurdle of faith. In open patois, Jesus said, "The clergywomen of healing and deliverance is limited to Israel. Did she tumble to that Jesus was speaking more of ecclesiastical Israel than He was speaking of natural Israel? He then euphemistic pre-owned the lethal, faith-killing weapon of a religious why and wherefore to give up look forward to. It shows God that your honey in requital for Him is verifiable and is not dependent upon circumstances. Actually, it looks worse at the moment than when she endured the investigation of silence and the check of faith-killing theology.
Meridians purchase meclizine 25mg line, gist paths buy cheap meclizine 25mg on line, are the mains trunks that run longitudinally and interiorly-exteriorly within the body; while the collaterals, meaning networks, which are thinner and smaller than the meridians, are the branches which dissipate crisscross on the fuselage. Acupoints refer to the operative sites on the company as a service to acupuncture therapies in the treatment of 33 Acupuncture Remedy of Neurological Diseases: A Neurobiological Judgement diversified diseases. They are almost always located in the interstices in the thick muscles or between the tendons and bones. According to the theory of meridians and acupoints, the acupoints are the locations where Qi and blood from the meridians and their internal organs effuse and infuse in the body surface. These names indicate the basic characteristics of acupoints: the locations where Qi and blood from the viscera and meridians effuse and infuse. The acupoints are usually located in the interstices in the thick muscles or between the tendons and bones. They are connected with both the internal organs and the meridians and collaterals, thus, forming a close relationship, known as points-meridians and collaterals-internal organs. According to the theory of meridian and acupoints, the acupoints can be used to treat diseases and keep good health by removing obstruction in the meridian, regulating Qi and blood, reinforcing the deficiency, and reducing the excess. In other words, acupoints are those special somatic positions that can accept a stimulation, reflect a syndrome, and treat diseases (Cheng 1990; Zhang 1990; Qiu and Chen 1992; Zhu 1998; Zhao and Li 2002). Acupuncture, moxibustion, Tuina, and other modalities are performed based on the theory of meridians and acupoints. In the acupuncture literature (Cheng 1990; Zhang 1990; Qiu and Chen 1992; Zhu 1998; Zhao and Li 2002), more than 670 specific sites on the body are considered to be acupoints. A large number of acupoints can be allocated to the point categories with reference to their semantic origin, functional significance, localization, and the links between the separate categories. Furthermore, based on the meridians, these acupoints can be classified into points of the fourteen meridians, extra points, and Ashi points (Qiu and Chen 1992; Zhao and Li 2002; Li 2003). In addition, there are also other therapies developed based on the acupuncture practice. These include electroacupuncture, electrothermal acupuncture, laser acupoint radiation, microwave, acupoint infrared therapy, acupoint magnetic therapy, etc. Clearly, the study on the specificity of the acupoints and meridians helps to elucidate the mechanisms of the acupuncture therapy. Unfortunately, the fundamental nature of the meridians is still unclear, and indeed, there are many controversial results in this field (Xie et al. Till date, the questions regarding the specificity of the acupoints have been explored in several ways: comparing the effects of true points versus the sham points, studying the unique physiological features of the acupoints as well as the anatomical structure at the acupoints, and studying the nerves activated by acupuncture at the acupoints. Acupoints can transport the Qi of the Zang-Fu organs and meridians to the body surface. Thus, when an abnormal function of the meridians and organs occurs, it would lead to the sensation of pain or pressing pain at the relative acupoints (Qiu and Chen 1992; Li 2003). This implies that there are some special relationships between the acupoints and viscera (Qiu and Chen 1992; Chen et al. Several researchers have shown that needling at true points produces marked analgesia, while needling at sham points produces very weak effects (Stacher and Wancura 1975; Chapman et al. Needling at sham points was observed to be effective in 33% 50% of the patients, which is similar to the effect of placebo analgesia, while needling at acupoints was found to be effective in 55% 85% of the cases. Using animal models (Pomeranz and Chiu 1976; Chan and Fung 1975; Fung and Chan 1975; Cheng and Pomeranz 1980; Takashige 1985; Toda and Ichioka 1978; Fung and Chan 1976; Liao et al. These results suggest that different acupoints on the same meridian may activate similar areas of the brain. In addition, acupoints that are commonly used in clinical practice might affect a greater extent of the cortical areas than the uncommonly used acupoints. There have been a number of reports stating that the skin resistance (impedance) over acupoints is lower than that of the surrounding skin (Zeng 1958; Becker and Reichmanis 1976; McCarroll and Rowley 1979; Chan 1984; Xu 1987; Lu 1987; Chen et al. However, in the studies claiming the unique properties of the acupoints, this value was found to be 50,000 ohms at the acupoints. It is further claimed that during the course of a disease of particular organs, the resistances at the acupoints become abnormally low (even lower than the usual low resistance at the acupoints) (Hu 1987; Gao 1987). Some reports showed a potential difference of 5 mV or more in the positive direction between the acupoints and the neighboring skin (Zeng 1958; Tseng and Chang 1958). In addition, Jaffe and Barker (1982) also showed that the human skin has a resting potential across its epidermal layer from 20 mV to 90 mV (outside negative, inside positive). From these studies, one can speculate that acupoints with low resistance tend to short- circuit this battery across the skin, and consequently, give rise to a source of current in a source-sink map of the skin. Some studies (Xu 1987) also demonstrated that the regeneration of the amputated amphibian limbs was enhanced by the application of the electric fields (and currents) in the direction of the negative pole. However, some scientists and clinicians are quite skeptical about the entire skin resistance phenomenon and most of the voltage measurements (Summarized by Stux and Pomeranz in 1988), because the measurements were not made according to the established biophysical practice. In particular, the electrochemical potential artifacts produced at the electrode-to-skin interface are observed to be high when compared with the millivolts being generated by the body. Furthermore, neither the published reports nor the clinical anecdotal observations were based on properly conducted studies. Hence, it seems unclear whether the low resistance or high voltage could be of any physiological significance to acupoints.